# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

While you think about numericals at present, the first of all that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize regularly. This system, however, is not the single way to represent numbers. There are several systems utilized by various cultures worldwide that use all sorts of characters. One such system is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a way of expressing numericals utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. It existed during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still learned in school, that is possibly why you have stumbled upon this post.

Today, we are gonna to check out Roman numerals, definition, how they work, and how to convert Roman numbers to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's check a quick look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you might have expected from the name. They were utilized in many angles of the Roman world, including business, architecture, and even war.

Nowadays, its extensive use is mainly attributed to aesthetic reasons. You might have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman numeral approach includes numericals using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are mixed to form groups that portray numbers. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, symbolizes the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then mix these numbers to depict any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are founded on additive and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another key difference is that the decimal method is based on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are established on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few hands-on examples of Roman numbers.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we observe the number in the name, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman number is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we grasp that this is the 4th to enter in the series employing the characteristics we will speak on subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the last to enter the original trilogy. Looking at the value represented, it contains a V ensued by an I. Therefore, we will include a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, letting us know this Star Wars movie is the 6th episode in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is important to know the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with assigned number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Regular Numericals

Since we have the convenient table of Roman numerals, we can utilize that information to change numericals back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will change these values at any time.

### Steps to Change Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To change Roman numbers to decimal numbers, we will use the linear and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is greater in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numbers to its left.

All you should do now is replicate this process until you reach the end of the Roman number group.

Let's take a look how you can change Roman numbers with a few examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Considering 10 is less than 50, we add the both values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and we find 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and get 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman number MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we sum the two values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and get 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Because we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our result. Thus, the Roman number MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this information and a little practice, you will transform Roman numerals to regular numbers like an expert!

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