# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are arithmetical expressions which includes one or several terms, each of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is an essential function in algebra which involves figuring out the remainder and quotient as soon as one polynomial is divided by another. In this article, we will explore the various approaches of dividing polynomials, involving synthetic division and long division, and provide instances of how to apply them.

We will further discuss the importance of dividing polynomials and its utilizations in various fields of math.

## Prominence of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is an important operation in algebra which has several applications in various fields of math, consisting of number theory, calculus, and abstract algebra. It is utilized to figure out a extensive range of challenges, including working out the roots of polynomial equations, figuring out limits of functions, and calculating differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is utilized to work out the derivative of a function, which is the rate of change of the function at any point. The quotient rule of differentiation includes dividing two polynomials, that is used to find the derivative of a function which is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is used to learn the characteristics of prime numbers and to factorize large values into their prime factors. It is further applied to learn algebraic structures for example rings and fields, that are fundamental concepts in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is utilized to specify polynomial rings, which are algebraic structures that generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are utilized in many domains of arithmetics, comprising of algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is a technique of dividing polynomials that is applied to divide a polynomial with a linear factor of the form (x - c), at point which c is a constant. The method is based on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, therefore the division of f(x) by (x - c) offers a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm consists of writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, using the constant as the divisor, and working out a series of workings to work out the quotient and remainder. The result is a streamlined form of the polynomial that is easier to work with.

## Long Division

Long division is a method of dividing polynomials which is used to divide a polynomial with another polynomial. The approach is based on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, where m ≤ n, subsequently the division of f(x) by g(x) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm consists of dividing the highest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor, and further multiplying the result with the whole divisor. The answer is subtracted of the dividend to obtain the remainder. The procedure is repeated as far as the degree of the remainder is lower in comparison to the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are a number of examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we want to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 with the linear factor (x - 1). We can apply synthetic division to simplify the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The result of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Thus, we can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's assume we have to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 by the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We could use long division to streamline the expression:

To start with, we divide the highest degree term of the dividend with the largest degree term of the divisor to get:

6x^2

Subsequently, we multiply the total divisor by the quotient term, 6x^2, to get:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to get the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

that streamlines to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We recur the method, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, with the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to get:

7x

Next, we multiply the whole divisor by the quotient term, 7x, to achieve:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this of the new dividend to get the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

that simplifies to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We repeat the procedure again, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, by the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to obtain:

10

Then, we multiply the total divisor with the quotient term, 10, to obtain:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this of the new dividend to obtain the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

which streamlines to:

13x - 10

Thus, the result of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We could state f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

Ultimately, dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra that has many uses in numerous domains of math. Comprehending the various techniques of dividing polynomials, such as long division and synthetic division, can help in working out complex challenges efficiently. Whether you're a student struggling to understand algebra or a professional working in a domain which includes polynomial arithmetic, mastering the concept of dividing polynomials is essential.

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